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ACCUEIL –> Classe MAMMALIA –> Ordre RODENTIA–> Sous-Ordre SCIUROMORPHA

Il y a trois formes d’écureuils :
Les écureuils arboricoles ont de longues queues touffues, des griffes pointues et des grandes oreilles. Certains ont des touffes bien développées sur les oreilles.
Les écureuils volant ont une membrane (patagium) se prolongeant entre le poignet et la cheville qui leur permet de planer entre les arbres.
Les écureuils terrestres sont généralement plus robustes que les écureuils arboricoles et ont souvent des membres antérieurs courts et puissants qui sont employés pour creuser. Leur queue, bien qu’entièrement velue, n’est pas généralement aussi touffue que celle des écureuils arboricoles. Comme beaucoup d’autres rongeurs, tous les écureuils ont cinq orteils fonctionnels sur les pattes arrière et quatre sur les pattes avant, avec une griffe bien développée sur chaque doigt.


Il existe 5 sous-familles :

Sous-famille des Callosciurinae : 14 genres et 64 espèces

  1. Callosciurus adamsi (ear-spot squirrel)
    Callosciurus albescens (Kloss squirrel)
    Callosciurus baluensis (Kinabalu squirrel)
    Callosciurus caniceps (gray-bellied squirrel)
    Callosciurus erythraeus (Pallas’s squirrel)
    Callosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson’s squirrel)
    Callosciurus inornatus (inornate squirrel)
    Callosciurus melanogaster (Mentawai squirrel)
    Callosciurus nigrovittatus (black-striped squirrel)
    Callosciurus notatus (plantain squirrel)
    Callosciurus orestes (Borneo black-banded squirrel)
    Callosciurus phayrei (Phayre’s squirrel)
    Callosciurus prevostii (Prevost’s squirrel)
    Callosciurus pygerythrus (Irrawaddy squirrel)
    Callosciurus quinquestriatus (Anderson’s squirrel)
  2. Dremomys everetti (Bornean mountain ground squirrel)
    Dremomys gularis (red-throated squirrel)
    Dremomys lokriah (orange-bellied Himalayan squirrel)
    Dremomys pernyi (Perny’s long-nosed squirrel)
    Dremomys pyrrhomerus (red-hipped squirrel)
    Dremomys rufigenis (Asian red-cheeked squirrel)
  3. Exilisciurus concinnus (Philippine pygmy squirrel)
    Exilisciurus exilis (least pygmy squirrel)
    Exilisciurus whiteheadi (tufted pygmy squirrel)
  4. Funambulus layardi (Layard’s palm squirrel)
    Funambulus palmarum (Indian palm squirrel)
    Funambulus pennantii (northern palm squirrel)
    Funambulus sublineatus (dusky palm squirrel)
    Funambulus tristriatus (jungle palm squirrel)
  5. Glyphotes simus (sculptor squirrel)
  6. Hyosciurus heinrichi (montane long-nosed squirrel)
    Hyosciurus ileile (lowland long-nosed squirrel)
  7. Lariscus hosei (four-striped ground squirrel)
    Lariscus insignis (three-striped ground squirrel)
    Lariscus niobe (Niobe ground squirrel)
    Lariscus obscurus (Mentawai three-striped squirrel)
  8. Menetes berdmorei (Indochinese ground squirrel)
  9. Nannosciurus melanotis (black-eared squirrel)
  10. Prosciurillus abstrusus (secretive dwarf squirrel)
    Prosciurillus leucomus (whitish dwarf squirrel)
    Prosciurillus murinus (Celebes dwarf squirrel)
    Prosciurillus rosenbergii (Sanghir squirrel)
    Prosciurillus weberi (Weber’s dwarf squirrel)
  11. Rhinosciurus laticaudatus (shrew-faced squirrel)
  12. Rubrisciurus rubriventer (Sulawesi giant squirrel)
  13. Sundasciurus brookei (Brooke’s squirrel)
    Sundasciurus davensis (Davao squirrel)
    Sundasciurus fraterculus (fraternal squirrel)
    Sundasciurus hippurus (horse-tailed squirrel)
    Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Busuanga squirrel)
    Sundasciurus jentinki (Jentink’s squirrel)
    Sundasciurus juvencus (Northern Palawan tree squirrel)
    Sundasciurus lowii (Low’s squirrel)
    Sundasciurus mindanensis (Mindanao squirrel)
    Sundasciurus moellendorffi (Culion tree squirrel)
    Sundasciurus philippinensis (Philippine tree squirrel)
    Sundasciurus rabori (Palawan montane squirrel)
    Sundasciurus samarensis (Samar squirrel)
    Sundasciurus steerii (southern Palawan tree squirrel)
    Sundasciurus tenuis (slender squirrel)
  14. Tamiops maritimus (maritime striped squirrel)
    Tamiops mcclellandii (Himalayan striped squirrel)
    Tamiops rodolphii (Cambodian striped squirrel)
    Tamiops swinhoei (Swinhoe’s striped squirrel)

Sous-famille des Ratufinae : 1 genre et 4 espèces

  1. Ratufa affinis (pale giant squirrel)
    Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)
    Ratufa indica (Indian giant squirrel)
    Ratufa macroura (Sri Lankan giant squirrel)

Sous-famille des Sciurillinae : 1 genre et 1 espèce

  1. Sciurillus pusillus (neotropical pygmy squirrel)

Sous-famille des Sciurinae : 2 tribus, 20 genres et 81 espèces

  • Tribu des Pteromyini (écureuils volant) : 15 genres et 44 espèces
  1. Aeretes melanopterus (north Chinese flying squirrel)
  2. Aeromys tephromelas (black flying squirrel)
    Aeromys thomasi (Thomas’s flying squirrel)
  3. Belomys pearsonii (hairy-footed flying squirrel)
  4. Biswamoyopterus biswasi (Namdapha flying squirrel)
  5. Eoglaucomys fimbriatus (Kashmir flying squirrel)
  6. Eupetaurus cinereus (woolly flying squirrel)
  7. Glaucomys sabrinus (northern flying squirrel)
    Glaucomys volans (southern flying squirrel)
  8. Hylopetes alboniger (particolored flying squirrel)
    Hylopetes bartelsi (Bartel’s flying squirrel)
    Hylopetes lepidus (gray-cheeked flying squirrel)
    Hylopetes nigripes (Palawan flying squirrel)
    Hylopetes phayrei (Indochinese flying squirrel)
    Hylopetes platyurus (Jentink’s flying squirrel)
    Hylopetes sipora (Sipora flying squirrel)
    Hylopetes spadiceus (red-cheeked flying squirrel)
    Hylopetes winstoni (Sumatran flying squirrel)
  9. Iomys horsfieldii (Javanese flying squirrel)
    Iomys sipora (Mentawi flying squirrel)
  10. Petaurillus emiliae (lesser pygmy flying squirrel)
    Petaurillus hosei (Hose’s pygmy flying squirrel)
    Petaurillus kinlochii (Selangor pygmy flying squirrel)
  11. Petaurista alborufus (red and white giant flying squirrel)
    Petaurista elegans (spotted giant flying squirrel)
    Petaurista leucogenys (Japanese giant flying squirrel)
    Petaurista magnificus (Hodgson’s giant flying squirrel)
    Petaurista nobilis (Bhutan giant flying squirrel)
    Petaurista petaurista (red giant flying squirrel)
    Petaurista philippensis (Indian giant flying squirrel)
    Petaurista xanthotis (Chinese giant flying squirrel)
  12. Petinomys crinitus (Mindanao flying squirrel)
    Petinomys fuscocapillus (Travancore flying squirrel)
    Petinomys genibarbis (whiskered flying squirrel)
    Petinomys hageni (Hagen’s flying squirrel)
    Petinomys lugens (Siberut flying squirrel)
    Petinomys mindanensis (Mindanao flying squirrel)
    Petinomys sagitta (arrow flying squirrel)
    Petinomys setosus (Temminck’s flying squirrel)
    Petinomys vordermanni (Vordermann’s flying squirrel)
  13. Pteromys momonga (Japanese flying squirrel)
    Pteromys volans (Siberian flying squirrel)
  14. Pteromyscus pulverulentus (smoky flying squirrel)
  15. Trogopterus xanthipes (complex-toothed flying squirrel)
  • Tribu des Sciurini (écureuils arboricoles, écureuils rouges…) : 5 genres et 37 espèces
  1. Microsciurus alfari (Central American dwarf squirrel)
    Microsciurus flaviventer (Amazon dwarf squirrel)
    Microsciurus mimulus (western dwarf squirrel)
    Microsciurus santanderensis (Santander dwarf squirrel)
  2. Rheithrosciurus macrotis (tufted ground squirrel)
  3. Sciurus aberti (Abert’s squirrel)
    Sciurus aestuans (Guianan squirrel)
    Sciurus alleni (Allen’s squirrel)
    Sciurus anomalus (Caucasian squirrel)
    Sciurus arizonensis (Arizona gray squirrel)
    Sciurus aureogaster (red-bellied squirrel)
    Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)
    Sciurus colliaei (Collie’s squirrel)
    Sciurus deppei (Deppe’s squirrel)
    Sciurus flammifer (fiery squirrel)
    Sciurus gilvigularis (yellow-throated squirrel)
    Sciurus granatensis (red-tailed squirrel)
    Sciurus griseus (western gray squirrel)
    Sciurus ignitus (Bolivian squirrel)
    Sciurus igniventris (northern Amazon red squirrel)
    Sciurus lis (Japanese squirrel)
    Sciurus nayaritensis (Mexican fox squirrel)
    Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)
    Sciurus oculatus (Peters’s squirrel)
    Sciurus pucheranii (Andean squirrel)
    Sciurus pyrrhinus (Junín red squirrel)
    Sciurus richmondi (Richmond’s squirrel)
    Sciurus sanborni (Sanborn’s squirrel)
    Sciurus spadiceus (southern Amazon red squirrel)
    Sciurus stramineus (Guayaquil squirrel)
    Sciurus variegatoides (variegated squirrel)
    Sciurus vulgaris (Ecureuil roux d’Eurasie)
    Sciurus yucatanensis (Yucatan squirrel)
  4. Syntheosciurus brochus (Bangs’s mountain squirrel)
  5. Tamiasciurus douglasii (Douglas’s squirrel)
    Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (red squirrel)
    Tamiasciurus mearnsi (Mearns’s squirrel)

Sous-famille des Xerinae : 3 tribus, 15 genres et 128 espèces

  • Tribu des Marmotini (marmottes, Tamias, écureuils terrestres…) : 6 genres et 92 espèces
  1. Ammospermophilus harrisii (Harris’s antelope squirrel)
    Ammospermophilus insularis (Espiritu Santo Island antelope squirrel)
    Ammospermophilus interpres (Texas antelope squirrel)
    Ammospermophilus leucurus (white-tailed antelope squirrel)
    Ammospermophilus nelsoni (Nelson’s antelope squirrel)
  2. Cynomys gunnisoni (Gunnison’s prairie dog)
    Cynomys leucurus (white-tailed prairie dog)
    Cynomys ludovicianus (black-tailed prairie dog)
    Cynomys mexicanus (Mexican prairie dog)
    Cynomys parvidens (Utah prairie dog)
  3. Marmota baibacina (gray marmot)
    Marmota bobak (Bobak marmot)
    Marmota broweri (Alaska marmot)
    Marmota caligata (hoary marmot)
    Marmota camtschatica (black-capped marmot)
    Marmota caudata (long-tailed marmot)
    Marmota flaviventris (yellow-bellied marmot)
    Marmota himalayana (Himalayan marmot)
    Marmota marmota (alpine marmot)
    Marmota menzbieri (Menzbier’s marmot)
    Marmota monax (woodchuck)
    Marmota olympus (Olympic marmot)
    Marmota sibirica (Tarbagan marmot)
    Marmota vancouverensis (Marmotte de l’île de Vancouver)
  4. Sciurotamias davidianus (Père David’s rock squirrel)
    Sciurotamias forresti (Forrest’s rock squirrel)
  5. Spermophilus adocetus (tropical ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus alashanicus (Alashan ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus annulatus (ring-tailed ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus armatus (Uinta ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus atricapillus (Baja California rock squirrel)
    Spermophilus beecheyi (California ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus beldingi (Belding’s ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus brevicauda (Brandt’s ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus brunneus (Idaho ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus canus (Merriam’s ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus citellus (European ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus columbianus (Columbian ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus dauricus (Daurian ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus elegans (Wyoming ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus erythrogenys (red-cheeked ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus franklinii (Franklin’s ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus fulvus (yellow ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus lateralis (golden-mantled ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus madrensis (Sierra Madre ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus major (russet ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus mexicanus (Mexican ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus mohavensis (Mohave ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus mollis (Piute ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus pallidicauda (pallid ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus parryii (Arctic ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus perotensis (Perote ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus pygmaeus (little ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus ralli (Tien Shan ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus relictus (Tien Shan ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus richardsonii (Richardson’s ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus saturatus (Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus spilosoma (spotted ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus suslicus (speckled ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus tereticaudus (round-tailed ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus townsendii (Townsend’s ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus tridecemlineatus (thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus undulatus (long-tailed ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus variegatus (rock squirrel)
    Spermophilus washingtoni (Washington ground squirrel)
    Spermophilus xanthoprymnus (Asia Minor ground squirrel)
  6. Tamias alpinus (alpine chipmunk)
    Tamias amoenus (yellow-pine chipmunk)
    Tamias bulleri (Buller’s chipmunk)
    Tamias canipes (gray-footed chipmunk)
    Tamias cinereicollis (gray-collared chipmunk)
    Tamias dorsalis (cliff chipmunk)
    Tamias durangae (Durango chipmunk)
    Tamias merriami (Merriam’s chipmunk)
    Tamias minimus (least chipmunk)
    Tamias obscurus (California chipmunk)
    Tamias ochrogenys (yellow-cheeked chipmunk)
    Tamias palmeri (Palmer’s chipmunk)
    Tamias panamintinus (Panamint chipmunk)
    Tamias quadrimaculatus (long-eared chipmunk)
    Tamias quadrivittatus (Colorado chipmunk)
    Tamias ruficaudus (red-tailed chipmunk)
    Tamias rufus (Hopi chipmunk)
    Tamias senex (Allen’s chipmunk)
    Tamias sibiricus (Siberian chipmunk)
    Tamias siskiyou (Siskiyou chipmunk)
    Tamias sonomae (Sonoma chipmunk)
    Tamias speciosus (lodgepole chipmunk)
    Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)
    Tamias townsendii (Townsend’s chipmunk)
    Tamias umbrinus (Uinta chipmunk)
  • Tribu des Protoxerini (écureuils africains) : 6 genres et 30 espèces
  1. Epixerus ebii (western palm squirrel)
  2. Funisciurus anerythrus (Thomas’s rope squirrel)
    Funisciurus bayonii (Lunda rope squirrel)
    Funisciurus carruthersi (Carruther’s mountain squirrel)
    Funisciurus congicus (Congo rope squirrel)
    Funisciurus isabella (Lady Burton’s rope squirrel)
    Funisciurus lemniscatus (ribboned rope squirrel)
    Funisciurus leucogenys (red-cheeked rope squirrel)
    Funisciurus pyrropus (fire-footed rope squirrel)
    Funisciurus substriatus (Kintampo rope squirrel)
  3. Heliosciurus gambianus (Gambian sun squirrel)
    Heliosciurus mutabilis (mutable sun squirrel)
    Heliosciurus punctatus (small sun squirrel)
    Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel)
    Heliosciurus ruwenzorii (Ruwenzori sun squirrel)
    Heliosciurus undulatus (Zanj sun squirrel)
  4. Myosciurus pumilio (African pygmy squirrel)
  5. Paraxerus alexandri (Alexander’s bush squirrel)
    Paraxerus boehmi (Boehm’s bush squirrel)
    Paraxerus cepapi (Smith’s bush squirrel)
    Paraxerus cooperi (Cooper’s mountain squirrel)
    Paraxerus flavovittis (striped bush squirrel)
    Paraxerus lucifer (black and red bush squirrel)
    Paraxerus ochraceus (ochre bush squirrel)
    Paraxerus palliatus (red bush squirrel)
    Paraxerus poensis (green bush squirrel)
    Paraxerus vexillarius (Svynnerton’s bush squirrel)
    Paraxerus vincenti (Vincent’s bush squirrel)
  6. Protoxerus aubinnii (slender-tailed squirrel)
    Protoxerus stangeri (forest giant squirrel)
  • Tribu des Xerini (écureuils terrestres africains) : 3 genres et 6 espèces
  1. Atlantoxerus getulus (Barbary ground squirrel)
  2. Spermophilopsis leptodactylus (long-clawed ground squirrel)
  3. Xerus erythropus (striped ground squirrel)
    Xerus inauris (South African ground squirrel)
    Xerus princeps (Damara ground squirrel)
    Xerus rutilus (unstriped ground squirrel)
Written on janvier 29th, 2014

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